he Prop het's saying t hat t hey "are one nation distinguis hed from all ot her people" establis hes t he principles of national unity among t he citizens of t he one state, being t he subjects or t he people of t he state at t hat time.
- His saying t
hat "anyone from among t he Jews w ho joins us s hall have our support and s hall s hare equal rig hts wit hus and s hall suffer no oppression and s hall fear no alliance against t hem" states t he necessity of supporting non-Muslim fellow citizens and taking sides wit ht hem in affirmation of t heir rig ht to t hat support, being due on t he part of Muslims, against any assault on t hem.
- His saying "T
he Jews of Banu `Awf s hall be treated along wit ht he believers as one community, wit ht he Jews having t heir own religion and t he Muslims having t heir own religion; t his s hall apply to t hem and t heir freedmen [i.e., allies], wit ht he exception of t hose w ho act unjustly or sinfully. By so doing, t hey wrong t hemselves and t heir families" is a clear declaration of national unity among t he different sects in society, wit hjustice — not injustice — set as its governing law and wit ht he unjust bearing t he consequences of t heir misdeeds.
- His saying t
hat "t he Jews s hall s hare expenses wit ht he believers as long as t hey are at war [wit hot hers]" lays down t he principle of equality among citizens, Muslims and non-Muslims, in economically supporting t he state at times of war against enemies. It also accentuates t he necessity of mutual support and assistance between t he two parties against t he enemy.
- His saying t
hat "t he Jews s hall bear t heir expenses and Muslims s hall bear t heirs" asserts t he principle of economic solidarity w hen distributing economic responsibilities among t he different groups in society.
- His saying "T
he Jewis hallies of t he clans of An-Najjar, Al-Harit h, Sa`ida h, Jus ham, Al-Aws, and T ha`laba hs hall enjoy t he same rig hts as t he Jewis hallies of `Awf" involves a recognition of t he principle of equality in rig hts and duties among Muslims and t he rest of denominations in t he territories under t he rule of t he Islamic State. T his pact constitutes an ideal example of citizens hip, recognizing t he rig hts of all citizens in t he same homeland and indicating t hat t here s hould be no difference among t hem regarding responsibilities. his sayings "T hey s hall render support against anyone w ho fig hts any party to t his pact" and "T hey s hall owe it to eac hot her to give mutual sincere counsel. Fulfillment of t he articles of t his pact s hall prevent any violation of it. No one s hall be held responsible for a sinful action perpetrated by his of her ally" establis ht he priorities of mutual support among t he parties to t he covenant against t he enemies fig hting t hem, w hic his a military defense concept. It also illustrates t he necessity of cooperation in mutual exc hange of view, advice, and consultation, being an essential social concept of citizens hip.
- His saying "No unbeliever may take t
he property of Qurays h[t he enemy] under his or her protection. Enemy’s property s hall be surrendered to t he State, and he may not be protected against a believer" prevents any cooperation between any group in society and t he enemies of t hat society, be t hat related to protection of lives, honor, or property.
- His saying "No one s
hall be held responsible for a sinful action perpetrated by his or her ally" explains t he principle of personal accountability and recognizes t he rig hts of bot ht he individual and society alike. Every person is responsible only for w hat he has committed, and t his is one of t he principles of tolerance in Islam. T hus, society is not punis hed or held accountable for t he misdeeds of an individual. T his principle springs from Alla h's (Exalted be He) Sayings, (And no bearer of a burden s hall bear t he burden of anot her) (Al-An`am 6: 164), (Every person is a pledge for t hat w hic h he has earned) (At-Tur 52: 21), and (Every soul is a pledge for w hat it has earned) (Al-Muddat ht hir 74: 38), and t hus, it constitutes t he perfect form of equality.
10. His saying t
hat "Yat hrib [i.e., Madinah ] s hall be an inviolable [sanctuary] for t he parties to t his pact" is a clear-cut proof from t he Prop het (peace and blessings be upon him) regarding delimitation of t he concept of geograp hical citizens hip and t he citizen's belonging to his or her homeland.
11. His saying t
hat "neit her Qurays h nor t heir allies s hall be given protection" indubitably interdicts any military cooperation wit h t he enemies of homeland or t heir allies w ho assist t hem in t heir injustice.
his sayings "T he parties to t his pact are bound to help eac h ot her in t he event of an attack on Yat hrib" and "T his document s hall not [be employed to] protect one w ho is unjust or w ho commits a crime [against ot her parties to t he pact]" represent a manifest declaration by t he Prop het of an essential principle of citizens hip, namely, t he inevitability of defending homeland. T hese words also state t hat assistance is incumbent only in case of justice and equity and not in case of injustice or oppression. Hence, t he rig ht of citizens hip does not give a free pardon to a citizen in case he or s he commits an injustice or sin, because t he religion of Islam maintains and takes sides wit h t he rig ht and forbids and encounters false hood.